On August 25, 2017, the Draft Intellectual Property (IP) Policy (Draft IP Policy) of the Republic of South Africa was published for public comments due by November 17, 2017. This Draft IP Policy follows from the IP Consultative Framework that was approved by the South African cabinet on July 6, 2016. In this multi-part series, we address the need for the policy, the goals, strategies to meet the goals, and the phases of implementation. In the second part of this series, we focus on the strategies and key reforms of the Draft IP Policy. In part one, we provided an introduction and the goals of the Draft Intellectual Property Policy.
As discussed in part one, the goals of the Draft IP Policy are:
- To consider the development dynamics of South Africa and improve how IP supports small institutions and vulnerable individuals in society, including in the domain of public health;
- To nurture and promote a culture of innovation, by enabling creators and inventors to reach their full potential and contribute towards improving the competitiveness of South African industries;
- To promote South African arts and culture; and
- To solidify South Africa’s various international obligations, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (Nagoya Protocol on ABS), in the service of genetic resources and traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources.
The primary strategies that will be employed in the Draft IP policy to achieve the above-listed goals, include:
- Advancing a balanced and coordinated approach to IP that regulates intellectual property rights (IPRs) in line with the South African Constitution;
- Introducing key policy reforms that account for the developmental dynamics of South Africa;
- Promoting an innovation and knowledge economy; and
- Leveraging competitive and comparative advantages to advance the transformation of the South African economy.
One of the key reforms will be the introduction of substantive search and examination (SSE) for patents. The introduction of this key reform will aid in ensuring that genuine innovation is stimulated within South Africa. A major benefit to the public at large will be ensuring that patents, and hence market exclusivity, are only granted when appropriate. A major benefit to patent holders is that they will be granted rigorously assessed rights that are more likely to withstand validity challenges.
Initially, SSE will be applied in the health sphere due to capacity constraints and resources of the South African Patent Office (SAPO). However, as the capacity of SAPO progressively increases, SSE will be expanded to other fields. The decisions on the initial fields in which SSE will occur will be decided by the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Intellectual Property (IMCIP) in consultation with a diversity of stakeholders. Although the draft policy document states that these will not be the only technical areas that will be examined, the pharmaceutical and life sciences areas will be one of the initial fields to undergo SSE. In anticipation of these changes, the South African Patent Office has hired 20 recruits who are currently undergoing training to become patent examiners. These recruits have degrees in physics, chemistry, and life sciences.
Another key reform focuses on ensuring that South Africa protects IP rights, while simultaneously promoting public health, local manufacture, research and development, innovation, food security, environmental considerations, transfer of technology, and overall socio-economic development. This reform will be addressed by the leveraging of flexibilities contained in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs).
The promotion of economic through implementation of a “utility model” is another key area of reform. It is important to note that the term “utility model” may be addressed differently in other countries. Other frequently used terms are “petty patents”, “short-term patents”, and “innovation patents.” Exclusivity is enacted similar to a patent right, which is granted to an inventor or the inventor’s assignee, by the state, for a fixed period of time. In contrast to a typical “original” patent, the terms and conditions for granting a utility model include a shorter term of protection and less stringent patentability requirements. This utility model will support the registration of patents by resident small, medium, and micro-enterprises (SMMEs), historically disadvantaged individuals, and companies who are operating in the informal sector.
In order to protect nationally-owned IP related to indigenous resources, traditional innovation, and traditional knowledge, South Africa is taking a coordinated approach to create awareness about IP among its citizens. Specifically, South Africa will create a system for the protection of traditional knowledge that will not only safeguard such knowledge from misappropriation and exploitation, but will also promote research and development in the area of products and services based such knowledge. The situation with the protection of traditional knowledge in South Africa currently is quite complicated. The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act 10 of 2004 (NEMBA) provides for benefit sharing, and the Patents Act was amended in 2005 to provide for disclosure in the event that indigenous (i.e. indigenous to South Africa) biological or genetic resources were used in the development of the invention, and to ensure compliance with NEMBA. In 2013, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act 28 of 2013 was promulgated in an attempt to amend the current IP laws to allow protection for indigenous knowledge. Regulations have not been promulgated and the IP Laws Amendment Act have not come into effect. In fact, the IP Laws Amendment Act has been criticized, because the current IP laws cannot be amended to cater for indigenous knowledge. Another bill that provides a sui generis system for the protection of indigenous knowledge has been proposed. Many in South Africa hope that the IP Laws Amendment Act will be repealed and replaced by the proposed bill.
Additional key reforms addressed by the Draft IP Policy include the promotion of cooperation and integration on IP, a commitment to all relevant international obligations that South Africa is party to, and the promotion of international best-practices in IP that align with South Africa’s development strategies.
Please continue to watch the BRIC Wall Blog for the remainder of the series on the Draft Intellectual Property Policy of the Republic of South Africa.
This post was written by Lisa Mueller and Kate Merath of Michael Best and David Cochrane of Spoor & Fisher.